Madagascar

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ELEMENTS OF CONTEXT

HISTORY

DEMOGRAPHY

SOCIO-ECONOMICAL CONTEXT

Madagascar is prone to tropical cyclones and the accompanying torrential rains, which in recent years have left thousands of people homeless. Madagascar’s decent housing deficit is estimated at more than 2 million. (1)

Madagascar is a poor country. 75 percent of its population lives in rural areas as farmers. However the rate of urbanization is 29 percent which is very high, meaning that there are increasing slum areas with poor housing conditions in the urban areas. More than half of its population does not have access to safe drinking water, and 87 percent do not have adequate sanitation facilities. This is an increasing problem in urban areas as the population is increasing so rapidly. (1)

Families earn what they can through domestic farming, carpentry, craft and embroidery. However, with their low incomes, most do not own land or have access to credit from traditional lending institutions. Their houses are usually little more than shacks made from compacted mud and poorly attached thatched roofs, which provide little or no protection from diseases, robbery and cyclones. (1)

HABITAT

HISTORY OF CITIES – HERITAGE

URBAN HOUSING

RURAL HOUSING

RIGHT TO HOUSING

FORCED EVICTION

LAND RIGHTS

LAND GRABBING

The example of Madagascar, one by which the perception of shrill land grabbing has emerged from 2008, is troubling indeed. There are four years, we talked with some dramatization of over a million and a half hectares appropriated or likely to be (1.3 Daewoo and Varun 0.4). Then, before the cancellation of these projects have tended to recognize that had alarmed for nothing and that the estimation of land grants in the country had largely collapsed completely or somewhat. But always Madagascar, waltz figures again and 2012 estimates we leave this time are on the rise, first with moderately list Grain early 2012 and then dramatically with estimates of Land Matrix (global observatory land grabbing) (2)

There is an Land Observatory in Madagascar : http://www.observatoire-foncier.mg/

VULNERABLE GROUPS

  • Homelessness
  • Joungpeople
  • Old people
  • Women

SOME INTERESTING PRACTICES

  • PARTICIPATORY BUDGETING : Ampasy Nahampoana is a small municipality of less than 10,000, located on the outskirts of the port of Tôlanaro (Fort Dauphin). PB started there in 2008, directly linked to debates around the use of mining royalties disbursed by rio Tinto for its exploitation of local mines. One of its singular aspects is the priority given to economic local development and income generation activities. To know more about the participatory budgeting concept or to read the report about this from Prof. Y Cabannes (IIED 2014) : http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10713IIED.pdf

Social and economic aspects

HOUSING MARKET

QUALITY OF HOUSING

INFORMAL HOUSING / SLUM / HOMELESS

ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES

Cultural aspects – Religious – Symbolic

Environmental aspects

Bibliography & Sitography

  1. Habitat for Humanity
  2. Gérard Chouquer, “The global issue of land grabbing”, Publitopex, 2012, 68p.

MAJOR PROBLEMS BY CIVIL SOCIETY

CLAIMS MAJOR CIVIL SOCIETY

CIVIL SOCIETY ACTORS

  • HABITAT FOR HUMANITY MADAGASCAR = Habitat Madagascar is currently building houses in the East, Central Highland, West, South Highland and Northwest regions. Most of the projects underway are in rural or sub-urban areas but urban slum upgrading has started to be a key component of the program. The first urban project started in the municipality of Moramanga in 2008 and in 2009 an urban renewal project started in the city of Toliara in the South of the country. WebsiteContact them
  • GRET MADAGASCAR = non profit organization that works in international network brings together professionals and Cooperative Development. In Madagascar, they live among other projects on microfinance and rural micro-enterprises – the preservation of health, including through access to improved water. Representation in Madagascar : WebsiteContact them.

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