Japan

URBANISATION

JAPANHistory of Towns- Heritage

Urban Habitat

Appartements structure bois - Credit Reneonnie

 

 

Appartement en manshon (béton armé) - Crédit Reneonnie

Appartment in manshon  (reinforced concrete) – Crédit Reneonnie

 

Rural Habitat

Les minka (litt. « maison du peuple ») sont les résidences traditionnelles. On peut les diviser en deux catégories : les nōka ( lit. « fermes ») et les machiya (lit. « maison des bourgs »). Crédit Reneonnie

The Din (Lit)« House of the people » are traditional dwellings witch can be divided into two categories : the nōka ( reads) « farms » …

HABITAT JAPON RENEONNIE 05

… and the machiya (bed. « House of the village »). (Crédit Reneonnie)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LEGAL ASPECT

Right to Lodging

Forced Eviction

USEFUL TOOLS:

Land Law

Land Grabbing

USEFUL TOOLS

Vulnerable Groups

  • Old people
  • Young People
  • Women

Some Interesting Practices

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

Housing Market

THE COST OF LAND RIGHTS IS TOTALLY INFLUENCED BY THE RIGHTS TO LODGING. (1)

Ground has acquired such a value to construct, compared to him, So it is with no pity that they are destroyed. Japanese towns have been practicing for a long time and it’s so without qualms that we destroy them. Japanese cities practice long architectural amnesia; the memory of the past takes other forms, such as the vibrant atmosphere of festivals and popular festivals (matsuri) or the proliferation of tiny (inarijinja) Shinto altars that brighten their vermilion colour areas. In Tokyo, Buddhist temples and shintos shrines retain a traditional look for most, although they have been repeatedly moved and rebuilt, the civilian heritage has almost entirely disappeared. Only certain luxurious hotels and some defined Club of the Keiretsuhave conserved some rare works of from the days of Meiji and Taisho. This architectural heritage was destroyed during the catastrophic earthquake, then the bombings done by the Americans, but it is thanks to the constant rehabilitation works that the threats disappeared.

Added to the high cost of land is the extreme fragmentation of the ownership of the ground. In the 23 wards of Tokyo, the parcels held by individuals have an average surface area of 211 m², and almost half are less than 100 m²; the proportion of micro-terrains reached 75% and 61% in the central districts of Chuo and Chiyoda, where land pressure is at its peak. This disintegration is compounded by the tangle of construction and land property rights. In Tokyo, a third of the plots are rented by individuals with a right to ground lease (shakuchi-ken), who built buildings and are owners. Designed in the 1940s to protect the families of the soldiers off to the front and never revised, shakuchi-ken makes virtually irremovable land tenants. But the Government has dared to take the political risk to revise these leases that complicate to infinity any land transaction.
Parcel and legal land fragmentation imposed constraints, very heavy urban development, particularly in the early 1980s, when the rise of finance and services caused the brutal explosion of demand for Office space in Tokyo. To build a large building, it needed to develop multiple small plots, which stretched much of a right to the land lease. Property appointed jiage-ya (plots gatherers) merchants specializing in the acquisition of rights of property and leases to form large land rights-of-way, without hesitation to use yakuza [5] to “convince” the recalcitrant owners. But the high cost of land is not the result of speculation alone and as a result of the lack of involvement of the public power in the Organization of cities. In addition, to encourage the private sector to take in charge a growing part of the cost of transport infrastructure and public spaces (parks, plots), authorities have multiplied derogatory devices to planning rules, strengthening the speculative expectations of the purchasers of land.

Quality of Lodging

Informal Habitat / Slum / Homeless

Homeless in Japan (No-Vox Network)

FSMTunisLogementJapon by avenir_vivable

Video from NO VOX

Japan, which is one of the richest countries in the world, is faced with serious problems of homelessness.

Homeless

JAPON VIDEO NOVOX02

Homeless – Credit NO VOX

It is only in 2009 that the government of Japan did accept that there was poverty in Japan. Before nothing like that existed and there was no statistic to that. The poverty rate nevertheless stood at 16%, which is somehow high for industrialised countries.

In the years 90, there were Japanese workers who worked for the government but never benefited from any social security. They lost their jobs and their lodgings because of the economic crises because till this time, the employers were the ones providing lodgings to the workers.

In the years 1995, 500 tents in carton could be found and many homeless persons  (about 500) in many travel agencies in Tokyo but in 1996 all the tents were all dismissed by the government of Tokyo. But since it was not possible to be poor in Japan before 2009 it was the fault of the people who were found guilty and received no aid from the population of Japan.

People did construct their tents in public parks. They had the spirit of brotherhood. Before we didn’t think it was possible to come up with an association of the unemployed or the homeless. Therefore we decided created one of such a kind for us. Before we never thought we could resist when the police chased away the homeless from public parks but the French movements did show us that we should resist against expulsions until we obtained something. Last year in 2012 a militant did call the police killers as they sent away the homeless from a park in the heart of winter. He was arrested by the police of course. But just belonging to an international network (NO VOX) did permit him to get help and was no longer isolated.

Source: video FSM Tunis NO VOX

ROLE OF THE STATE

Social Habitat

Lodgings that are provided by the social regional services and some public enterprises are called «social lodgings». Concerning people with low revenue but are in need of a lodging, there exists lodgings at affordable rates. These social lodgings are distributed by the National authorities, municipal and public enterprises, There exists many types of social lodgings namely, amongst which, the national social lodgings, municipal and the UR (An agency for urban renaissance.). Only those recommended can benefit from these lodgings. The benefits of the national social lodgings provided by the regional social services do intervene four times yearly. (January, April, July and October) The list of their offers is available in the various municipalities. The offers are published in a municipal newspaper, travel agencies as well as well as associations in well known neighbourhoods.  (3)

ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

Bibliography & Sitography

SOCIAL MOVEMENT

Major Problems

Major Claims or Demands

Some Actors from Social Movements

  • NOJIREN = Association of homeless. Japanese Association of homeless people who fight for the right to housing and access to social rights for people on the street.. Website

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