Comoros

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URBANIZATION

History of cities – Heritage

In the 8th century, we found the first habitats and during the 12th century, the first brick house, with the construction of the first mosques. The houses are then tightened against each other, according to the rules of Swahili architecture (= lime materials, basalt rock, wood, …). The habitat is hard for the rich, the poor must be content with building materials plants. (1)

The habitat is often a women-owned, the woman receives from her husband (rule uxorilocality). Completion of the building reverts to the father or uncle of the girl (family honor). (1)

There are three types of accommodation:

  • Huts
  • Cells in plates
  • The chipboard contructions

Source : “Financer l’habitat aux Comores” – Anne-Laure Axus – IFAD

Spaces are separated by gender : the courtyard of the house is a space exclusively female while in public places and mosques are places exclusively male. (1)

Prior to 2006, there is an almost total lack of housing policy. The elected President in 2006, Mr. Sambi, a habitat objectives for its people, he wants to target low-income people and wants to build more than 10,000 housing units in late 2010. (1)

The conventional banking system is underdeveloped, it is microfinance can intervene to support the housing (Sanduck, MECK). but this does not happen without conditions, with a ration of debt that should not exceed 33% of household income. (1)

In 1978, a social housing program is run by the state, society Estate Mayotte (SIM) is the technical operator. The goal is to build 17,000 boxes over 25 years. (1)

Urban housing

The ever-increasing density urban cities and the shortage Comorian plot involves a reflection on the habitat in terms of community and non-residential unit, as has been proposed in the past decades. Faced with the increasing poverty of cities in urban complexity scalable resorption of slums by creating housing is integral dimension of development and seen as a way to focus on fight against urban poverty. (2)

Rural housing

The rural exodus being what it is, Moroni, Comoros Capital sees its slums grow every year under the general helplessness, thereby generating social, economic and health. (2)

LEGAL ASPECTS

Right to housing

Forced eviction

Land rights

Land grabbing

Vulnerable groups

  • Homelessness
  • Joungpeople
  • Old people
  • Women

Some interesting practices

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

Housing market

Quality of housing

Informal housing / Slum / Homeless

ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

The geology of the soil Comoros composed of volcanic rock, has always allowed its use for construction. This same stone is traditionally used in foundations, retaining walls, basement and even in cladding facade (Rafia). the current predominance of cement in construction, imported material whose Comoros regularly suffer damage and changes in the market conditions the progress of projects and quality of achievements: scarcity, price, dosage. the lack of an architectural model valued and valuing local materials, has led to the exclusive use of cement and its derivatives, at the expense of volcanic stone. This is to include housing in a sustainable development approach. (2)

Bibliography & Sitography

  1. Enabling the rural to overcome poverty, Power Point réalisé par Anne-Laure Axus, IFAD.
  2. Habitat social et architecture aux Comores, Baticom, premier forum international sur l’habitat aux Comores, 2009. Forum’s report

FROM CIVIL SOCIETY

Mayor problems

Major claims

Civil society actors

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