Bulgaria

URBANIZATION

BULGARIA

History of Cities – Heritage

Urban Housing

Rural Housing

LEGAL ASPECTS

Right to Housing

Forced Eviction

Land Rights

Land Grabbing

Vulnerable Groups

  • Homelessness
  • Joungpeople
  • Old people
  • Women

Some interesting practices

SOCIAL AND ECONOMICAL ASPECTS

Housing Market

– Cost : During the communist era, families were able to acquire affordable housing and poor quality (prefabricated). The entry into a market economy has placed the weight of the housing management of the central government to local communities, they do not have the resources to deal with problems. In addition, membership in the EU has increased the acquisition cost significantly, especially in the capital. This has a significant impact on families: Bulgaria has the largest number of children in Europe, the children being removed from their parents for reasons of poor housing !!!

– The tenure : Most Bulgarians are homeowners, whether a house or an apartment in a large building. their biggest problem is finding the funds to maintain the housing of such poor quality.

– People with a disability : most homes as well as arrangements of public space does not allow people with disabilities to live properly.

– In rural areas : for 20 years, a decline in the level of well-being observed in rural areas (less employment, income, services). It is estimated that the standard of living is below that of the 1990s!

Source: Habitat for Humanity Bulgaria (1)

Quality of Housing

Informal Housing / Slum / Homeless

ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES

Public Housing

Definition and situation in 2012

Social housing in Bulgaria consists of municipally owned dwellings let to particularly needy people, and repre- sents about 3% of the total housing stock in the country. Housing policies include also measures supporting households with utility payment (meant for both – the rental and owner occupied sector) covered by state budget, as well as assistance to home owners through subsidies for purchase and renovation of dwellings.

How does it work ?

Municipalities own and manage the public rental stock, which is diminishing progressively. The framework document regulating housing policy in Bulgaria is the National Housing Strategy adopted by the Council of Ministers in 2005. The state has withdrawn from funding housing provision, which is now a responsibility of municipalities which suffer from a chronic shortage of funds. They have very limited possibilities to maintain their existing stock, and there has been no investment in the construction of new public housing for almost two decades. Furthermore, municipalities have been selling the existing stock (sale to sitting tenants is allowed, according to administrative procedure).

Municipalities allocate available dwellings on the basis of waiting lists. Criteria for the application for public housing include that applicants do not own real estate, have not made transactions with properties, have had a permanent address registration in the settlement for the last five years, do not have bank deposits and other properties, and 25% of their annual income cannot cover any rent on the free market. The allocation process is targeted at households with special needs: orphans, disabled, chronically ill, elderly and single parents. Tenants in ‘restituted’ dwellings (see glossary) have priority.

Source : CECODHAS Report 2012

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

Bibliography & Sitography

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Major Problems

Major Claims

Civil Society Actors

  • HABITAT FOR HUMANITY BULGARIA = humanitarian non-profit association whose goal is to eradicate poverty in terms of habitat and homelessness. To do this, they build and renovate housing worldwide, offer packages of micro-credit and loans, help to clean up homes, advocate for affordable housing for all. In particular, Bulgaria, the association fights to improve the housing so that the children are no longer taken to their parents, implements renovations to improve the energy performance of buildings, as a better financial management, offers micro-credit to households. Websiteemail.

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